miércoles, 12 de septiembre de 2007

Melting-Pot

El dia de hoy termina la serie ‘Identities’ del diario “The Gazette” sobre el tema de la inmigración en Canada, la quinta y ultima entrega trata sobre los diferentes modelos de recepción e integración de largo plazo.

.



Hay tres modelos bien conocidos:
- Multiculturalismo
- Sociedad laica y ciudadana
- Melting-Pot


El multiculturalismo esta reconocido en la Constitución Canadiense y es llevado a la practica diariamente por el gobierno federal.
Básicamente busca que los grupos de inmigrantes mantengan su cultura y sus costumbres y los alienta a preservarlas apoyándolos con subsidios y programas comunitarios.


La idea es que los grupos de inmigrantes enriquecen a la sociedad en su conjunto y forman todas ellas un mosaico multicultural.

Este esquema se practica con variantes en Holanda, Dinamarca e Inglaterra, aunque recientemente está siendo re-evaluado por los problemas que ha generado, sobre todo la formación de ghettos y grupos que no participan en la sociedad después de décadas e incluso generaciones en el país receptor.
En Canada ha funcionado aceptablemente bien pero existen grupos que lo cuestionan y en Québec nunca ha sido bien visto porque los quebecos francófonos temen convertirse en un mosaico más de este collage multicolor y perder su identidad y predominancia en la provincia.

La Sociedad Laica y Ciudadana se aplica básicamente en Francia, donde se busca oficialmente que las diferencias étnicas, de idioma, culturales, religiosas no influyan en la vida publica y esta prohibido el uso de símbolos religiosos en las escuelas como el velo de los musulmanes, la estrella de David o incluso crucifijos cristianos ostentosos.
Todos son ciudadanos iguales frente a la ley y no se hace ningún tipo de distingo o de tratamiento especial.
Francia no lleva ningún registro oficial sobre el origen étnico o religioso de la población.

Los enfrentamientos en las afueras de Paris recientemente han puesto en entredicho este modelo, jovenes que son segunda y tercera generacion nacidos en Francia son tratados como ciudadanos de segunda y el rencor social esta creciendo.

El Meeting-Pot es famoso porque es el modelo de asimilación estadounidense por excelencia.
Durante casi 250 años los EU han proclamado y aplicado con rigor que aquel que quiera alcanzar el Sueño Americano debe dejar atrás y olvidar sus particularidades culturales de origen y “fundirse” en la identidad y modo de ser de los Estados Unidos.
Debe hablar ingles y compartir los valores fundamentales de la sociedad receptora.
El modelo ha funcionado aceptablemente bien ya que han recibido millones de individuos durante tres siglos y sus descendientes actualmente no se sienten ”rusos”, “alemanes”, "ingleses”, ”franceses”, etc.
Se conciben orgullosamente como ‘Americanos’ (dejemos de lado por lo pronto que usurpan a todo un continente al llamarse de esta manera).

La encuesta que pidió “The Gazette” par esta serie muestra claramente que la población en Québec, irónicamente, se identifica en su mayoría con el modelo …
Americano.

En la provincia de Québec se pretende una asimilación del inmigrante, un Meting-Pot al estilo americano pero en Francés y con cultura quebeca.
Hay poca tolerancia a las diferencias, sobre todo a las manifestaciones de tipo religioso.

En mi opinión personal es la mejor opción, el multiculturalismo no es capaz de generar una identidad fuerte que requiere toda sociedad para salir delante. Una sociedad homogénea (no idéntica) es más estable.

Decía que esto es irónico, porque muchos en Quebec buscan ser diferentes (e incluso opuestos) a los EU, pero en este punto tan importante el ejemplo viene de nuestro vecino del sur.

18 comentarios:

Hector Torres dijo...

Hijole, en verdad que es un tema dificil.

Por un lado el Multiculturalismo en teoria suena muy bien, pero luego viene lo de los acomodamientos razonables, como dar cabida a las distintas costumbres para que haya una sana convivencia. Y luego lo de los ghettos.

EL Melting Pot, pues ahi difiero un poco, por que tambien en este sistema se dan los ghettos. Creo que los ghettos se dan por una cuestion de racismo por un lado, y por el sentido de pertenencia por el otro, no tanto por la forma de tratar la inmigracion por parte del gobierno.

Esto es cultural y de educacion, todo pasa por ahi, no por nada en los ghettos estan las personas menos escolarizadas ( en proporcion), con mayor nivel de desempleo y pobreza.

Un tema que tiene muchas aristas, creo yo.

Saludos.

Adriana dijo...

Muy interesante tu post. No me había puesto a pensar en esas diferencias.

Arturo dijo...

Hector tienes razon, casi todos los ghettos concentran a la gente mas desprotegida, justamente el ghetto es una respuesta para darse apoyo mutuo.

Pero en el melting-pot la inmensa mayoria se integra, se fusiona y contribuye al crecimiento de su sociedad, pierdes parte de la riqueza multicultural pero ganas en cohesion social a mediano plazo.

Por otra parte ni siquiera en los EU se pierde totalmente la cultura de origen, preguntale a los 30 millones de paisanos que estan 'del otro lado'.
Arturo

Arturo dijo...

Adrian,
Me da mucho gusto que nos vistes desde Venezuela y que ya pronto estes en la tierra del ARCE!!
Hay muchos temas de debate y dialogo en Canada.
Arturo

Hector Torres dijo...

Mientras te escribo esto, estoy escuchando "All souls night" de Loreenita....

Exactamente a eso es a lo que me refiero, los ghettos se hacen por cuestiones culturales y de apoyo entre las minorias, no tanto por cuales son las politicas gubernamentales, claro, entre mas racistas y discriminatoria sean estas politicas mas se van a dar por las mismas razones.

Y un muy buen ejemplo, como lo comentas de EEUU es el "East L.A.", yo creo que ahi es un GRAN Ghetto, no crees?, y bueno, practicamente se habla español. Ahi encuentras todo lo bueno y lo malo de nuestra cultura...

Un abrazo.

P.D. te llego el e-mail que te envie??

Anónimo dijo...

Thanks for sharing this link, but unfortunately it seems to be offline... Does anybody have a mirror or another source? Please reply to my post if you do!

I would appreciate if a staff member here at comoescanada.blogspot.com could post it.

Thanks,
Peter

Anónimo dijo...

Hello,

This is a message for the webmaster/admin here at comoescanada.blogspot.com.

May I use part of the information from your blog post above if I provide a backlink back to this website?

Thanks,
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ARTURO dijo...

Hi John,
No problem, you can use this post always providing the backlink to 'Como es Canada'.

Regards
Arturo
webmaster

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